Fandom

Diabetes in Pets

Analogs

Category page | Redirected from Analog

416pages on
this wiki
Add New Page
Talk0
Felineinsulin analog

Feline insulin compared with bovine, canine/porcine, human, glargine (Lantus) and detemir (Levemir). Differences, alterations and additions shown for all 6 insulins.

These insulins are analogs, created artificially rather than extracting them from animals or duplicating human insulin. Although they function like insulin, they have specific molecular differences designed to alter their action profile.

Insulin analogs (or analogues) are chemically-synthesized molecules that function similarly to insulin, but have alterations which change their speed of absorption or other properties. The basic "building block" of all analog insulins is the human insulin molecule, as it is to this where the modifications for speed or length are made.

We in the Pet Diabetes world are most familiar with Lantus and Levemir as ultra-slow acting insulin analogs, but much research also goes into ultra-fast-acting analogs such as Lispro.

When pets and people are experiencing diabetic emergencies such as DKA the rapid-acting Novolog, NovoRapid (aspart), Humalog (lispro) or (glulisine) Apidra may be used to bring the blood glucose levels down. Dr. Nelson of University of California-Davis said in his lecture at the Ohio State Endocrinology Symposium in 2006 that if the short-acting analog insulins have any role in feline and canine diabetes, it is not yet determined[1][2]

Many people with diabetes opt for one of these three for their bolus insulin, whether they use Lantus or Levemir for their basal or not.

Analog InsulinsEdit

Rapid-acting Analogs

All soluble

Apidra insulin Glulisine

Humalog insulin Lispro

Novolog insulin Aspart

NovoRapid insulin Aspart

Intermediate-acting Analogs

All Non-soluble

Humalog 75/25 insulin Lispro

Humalog Mix 25 insulin Lispro

Humalog 50/50 insulin Lispro

Humalog Mix 50 insulin Lispro

Novolog Mix insulin Aspart

NovoMix 30 insulin Aspart

Long-acting Analogs

Lantus insulin Glargine
Non-soluble

Levemir insulin Detemir
Do not use intravenously.

Analog insulins: amino acid sequenceEdit


Amino Acid Sequence of Insulin Preparations[3]
Amino Acid Substitutions

 

  A-Chain Position  

B-Chain Position

Source
Species
A-8 A-10 A-21 B-28 B-29 B-30 B-31
B-32
Beef Ala Val Asn Pro Lys Ala N/A
Pork Thr Ilc Asn Pro Lys Ala N/A
Human Thr Ilc Asn Pro Lys Thr N/A
Aspart Thr Ilc Asn Aspartic Acid Lys Thr N/A
Lispro Thr Ilc Asn Lys Pro Thr N/A
Glulisine Thr Ilc Asn Pro Glu Thr N/A
Lantus (glargine) Thr Ilc Gly Pro Lys Thr Arg
Levemir(detemir) Thr Ilc Asn Pro Lys N/A Myristic Acid
Ala=Alanine Val=Valine Asn=Asparagine Pro-Proline Lys=Lysine Thr=Threonine Ilc=Isoleucine Glu-Glutamine Gly=Glycine



Analog insulins: pharmacokineticsEdit

<center>Pharmacokinetics of Insulin Preparations[4]
Insulin Preparations
Onset (hr)
Peak (hr)
Duration (hr)
Rapid-Acting
R/Neutral
0.5 to 1
2.5 to 5
8 to 12
Lispro
0.25 to 0.5
0.5 to 1.5
2 to 5
Aspart
0.17 to 0.33
1 to 3
3 to 5
Glulisine
0.17 to 0.33
1 to 3
3 to 5
Intermediate-Acting
NPH
Isophane
1 to 1.5
6 to 14
16 to 24
Lente[5]
1 to 3
6 to 14
20+
70/30-30/70
0.5 to 1
2 to 12
24
50/50
0.5 to 1
2 to 12
24
Novolog 70/30 Mix
0.25
1 to 3
24
Humalog 75/25 Mix
0.25
0.5 to 1.5
24
Long-Acting
Ultralente[6]
6
14 to 18
18 to 24
PZI[7]
4 to 6
14 to 18
24 to 36
Glargine
1.1
N/A
24
Detemir
0.8 to 2
N/A
up to 24

These are human activity profiles.

Further ReadingEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Selecting an Insulin for Treating Diabetes Mellitus in Dogs & Cats-Page 39
  2. Evaluating Insulin Products for Companion Animals Abrams-Og ACVIM 2007
  3. Pharmacy Times-Guide to Insulin Preparations
  4. Pharmacy Times-Guide to Insulin Preparations
  5. Endotext.com-Insulin Pharmacology
  6. Endotext.com-Insulin Pharmacology
  7. NetDoctor-UK Hypurin Protamine Zinc

Pages in category "Analogs"

The following 11 pages are in this category, out of 11 total.

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.