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Diabetes refers to either wikipedia:Diabetes mellitus or wikipedia:Diabetes insipidus, and on this site mostly the first. Diabetes insipidus is a chronic condition of insufficient Antidiuretic hormone or resistance to this hormone. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition of insufficient insulin or resistance to it, and high blood glucose levels.
- Wiki cases-Diabetes Insipidus
- Trauma-induced Central Diabetes Insipidus in a Cat-Australian Veterinary Journal 2005
- Central Diabetes Insipidus in Five Cats: Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis and Oral Desmopressin Therapy-Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery 2005
- Diabetes Insipidus in Cats
- Polydipsia & Polyuria in Cats-Petplace.com
- Transient Diabetes Insipidus in a Dog With Acromegaly-Journal of Small Animal Practice-1999
- Transient, Traumatically Induced, Central Diabetes Insipidus in a Dog-JAVMA-1989
- Diabetes Insipidus: The Other Diabetes
- Vet Info 4 Dogs-Diabetes Insipidus
- Polydipsia & Polyuria in Dogs-Petplace.com
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- All about Diabetes Insipidus in pets
- Polyuria, Polydipsia & Diabetes Insipidus-WSAVA 2002-Dr. Richard Nelson
- Puff's Diabetes Insipidus Story
- Desmopressin/DDAVP-For Use in Central Diabetes Insipidus in Dogs & Cats-Petplace.com
- Diabetes Insipidus-Petplace.com
- Diabetes Mellitus-Symptoms Common to Other Diseases-Petplace.com
Diabetes mellitus is commonly divided into two types, depending on the origin of the condition:
Type 1 diabetes, sometimes called "juvenile diabetes", is caused by destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas due to an autoimmune disorder.
Type 2 diabetes is caused by either insulin resistance or insufficient insulin production, which can be triggered by any number of causes. Type 2, if not well-treated, deteriorates as it destroys beta cells of the pancreas, eventually leading to complete insulin dependence. If well-treated early, some proportion of cats experience remission.
- The typical canine diabetes patient is middle-aged, female and overweight at diagnosis.
- The typical feline diabetes patient is middle-aged, male, and overweight at diagnosis.
- Cats are one of the few species capable of developing a form of diabetes which is very much like that of Type 2 in humans. Both can develop amyloid deposits which inhibit the endocrine pancreas from working properly.
- Type 2 diabetes is rare in dogs, but between 80-95% of cats with diabetes suffer from the Type 2 form.
- The number of dogs diagnosed with diabetes mellitus has increased three-fold in thirty years. Looking back on survival rates from almost the same time period, only 50% survived the first 60 days after diagnosis and went on to be successfully treated at home. With treatment, diabetic dogs are able to survive as long as non-diabetic dogs of the same age and gender.
- The number of cats diagnosed with diabetes mellitus has increased at least twofold in the last 15 years, and now ranges from 1 in 400 to about 1 in 50 cats. With early appropriate diet change and treatment, it is now possible for 20 to 90 percent of Type-2 cats to expect diabetic remission.
Similarities and Differences of Diabetes Mellitus in Canines and Felines
Contributing Factors in Diabetes Mellitus
Common endocrine disorder
Primary diabetes is most similar to human Type II, NIDDM
Primary diabetes is most similar to human Type I, NIDDM
Peak occurrence in middle-aged to older animals
Initially presents as NIDDM and progresses to IDDM
Can experience transient diabetes
Obesity is a common factor
Higher incidence in males versus females
Higher incidence in females versus males
- Current Understanding of Feline Diabetes Mellitus-WSAVA 2004-Drs. Rand & Martin
- Therapeutic Goals for Otherwise Healthy Diabetic Cats--WSAVA 2004--Drs. Rand & Martin
- Understanding Feline Diabetes: Pathogenesis & Management-Drs. Rand & Marshall-2005
- Signs of Feline Diabetes Mellitus-Drs. Foster & Smith Pet Education Library
- Feline Models of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus-ILAR/National Research Council-2006
- Stabilizing the Healthy Diabetic Cat-Axiom Labs (UK)
Note: Axiom is UK-based--the all beef Insuvet insulins referred to are available there. Comparable insulins in North America would be PZI from BCP, VPOA, or Summit, or Hypurin Bovine Protamine Zinc imported from CP Pharma. Caninsulin is available in the US as Vetsulin.
- Diabetes Mellitus in the Cat: A Review-Schweizer Archiv fuer Tierheilkunde--2006-Article Translated into English
- FDMB posting discussing the difference between insulin-dependent Type-2 and actual Type-1 diabetes in cats
- FDMB posting discussing types of diabetes in further detail
- Managing Feline Diabetes-Diet-North American Veterinary Conference-2006
- Early Diabetes Detection in Cats-North American Veterinary Conference-2006
- Standards of Care: Feline Diabetes Mellitus, Professor David Church, WSAVA 2006
- FDMB posting regarding types in dogs and cats, from a talk by Dr. David Bruyette, DVM
- Pathogenesis of Diabetes Mellitus--Canines and Felines 2003 WSAVA Presentation
- Diabetes Mellitus Classifications
- Comparative Aspects of Diabetes Mellitus in Dogs and Cats-Molecular & Cellular Endocrinology-2002
- Gastrointestinal Signs in Endocrine Disorders-Cats & Dogs-Provet UK
- Endocrine Diseases in Dogs and Cats: Similarities and Differences with Endocrine Diseases in Humans-Growth Hormone & IGF Research 2003
- Cornell University-Feline Health Center-Diabetes: Getting the Diagnosis Flash Movie
Though the movie is essentially aimed at feline diabetes, the diabetes concepts presented in it are basic to the disease, making it suitable for all.
- ↑ World Health Organization definitions and diagnosis of diabetes
- ↑ Dr. Richard Nelson on deteriorating type-2 diabetes in cats
- ↑ VIN-Canine Diabetes
- ↑ Feline Diabetes
- ↑ Similarities of Type 2 Diabetes in Cats & Humans
- ↑ Understanding Feline Diabetes Mellitus, J. Rand, R. Marshall, 2005
- ↑ Beyond Insulin Therapy: Achieving Optimal Control in Diabetic Dogs Drs. Fleeman & Rand-U-Queensland 2005
- ↑ Vet tech blog, 2006
- ↑ Canine and Feline Diabetes Mellitus: Nature or Nurture, J. Rand et al.
- ↑ Rand & Marshall, ibid
- ↑ US Pharmacist Diabetes Mellitus in Canines and Felines-2002
- ↑ Insulin Resistance Not Associated with Glucose Intolerance in Dogs Obese Due to Overfeeding-ACVIM 2006-Page 78, Abstract #224
- ↑ Petshealth.com-Feline Diabetes
- ↑ Transient Canine Diabetes Mellitus-Journal of Small Animal Practice, 2003
- ↑ Intervet-Caninsulin-Page 3
- ↑ Veterinary Partner-Steroid Use
- ↑ Veterinary Information Network-Canine Diabetes