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Diabetes in Pets

Diabetes

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Diabetes refers to either wikipedia:Diabetes mellitus or wikipedia:Diabetes insipidus, and on this site mostly the first. Diabetes insipidus is a chronic condition of insufficient Antidiuretic hormone or resistance to this hormone. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition of insufficient insulin or resistance to it, and high blood glucose levels.

Diabetes insipidusEdit

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See wikipedia:Diabetes insipidus for further information.

Diabetes mellitusEdit

Diabetes mellitus is commonly divided into two types[1], depending on the origin of the condition:

Type 1Edit

Type 1 diabetes, sometimes called "juvenile diabetes", is caused by destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas due to an autoimmune disorder.

Type 2Edit

Type 2 diabetes is caused by either insulin resistance or insufficient insulin production, which can be triggered by any number of causes. Type 2, if not well-treated, deteriorates[2] as it destroys beta cells of the pancreas, eventually leading to complete insulin dependence. If well-treated early, some proportion of cats experience remission.

Fast FactsEdit

  • The typical canine diabetes patient is middle-aged, female[3] and overweight at diagnosis.
  • The typical feline diabetes patient is middle-aged, male, and overweight at diagnosis[4].
  • Cats are one of the few species capable of developing a form of diabetes which is very much like that of Type 2 in humans. Both can develop amyloid deposits which inhibit the endocrine pancreas from working properly[5].
  • Type 2 diabetes is rare in dogs, but between 80-95% of cats with diabetes suffer from the Type 2 form[6].
  • The number of dogs diagnosed with diabetes mellitus has increased three-fold in thirty years. Looking back on survival rates from almost the same time period, only 50% survived the first 60 days after diagnosis and went on to be successfully treated at home. With treatment, diabetic dogs are able to survive as long as non-diabetic dogs of the same age and gender[7].
  • The number of cats diagnosed with diabetes mellitus has increased at least twofold in the last 15 years[8], and now ranges from 1 in 400 to about 1 in 50 cats.[9] With early appropriate diet change and treatment, it is now possible for 20 to 90 percent of Type-2 cats to expect diabetic remission.[10]


Similarities and Differences of Diabetes Mellitus in Canines and Felines[11]

Contributing Factors in Diabetes Mellitus

Felines Canines

Common endocrine disorder

Yes Yes

Primary diabetes is most similar to human Type II, NIDDM

Yes No[12]

Primary diabetes is most similar to human Type I, NIDDM

No Yes

Peak occurrence in middle-aged to older animals

Yes
[13]
Yes

Breed predispositions

No Yes

Initially presents as NIDDM and progresses to IDDM

No Yes

Can experience transient diabetes

Yes Yes
[14][15][16]

Obesity is a common factor

Yes Yes

Higher incidence in males versus females

Yes No

Higher incidence in females versus males

No Yes
[17]

Further ReadingEdit

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ReferencesEdit

  1. World Health Organization definitions and diagnosis of diabetes
  2. Dr. Richard Nelson on deteriorating type-2 diabetes in cats
  3. VIN-Canine Diabetes
  4. Feline Diabetes
  5. Similarities of Type 2 Diabetes in Cats & Humans
  6. Understanding Feline Diabetes Mellitus, J. Rand, R. Marshall, 2005
  7. Beyond Insulin Therapy: Achieving Optimal Control in Diabetic Dogs Drs. Fleeman & Rand-U-Queensland 2005
  8. Vet tech blog, 2006
  9. Canine and Feline Diabetes Mellitus: Nature or Nurture, J. Rand et al.
  10. Rand & Marshall, ibid
  11. US Pharmacist Diabetes Mellitus in Canines and Felines-2002
  12. Insulin Resistance Not Associated with Glucose Intolerance in Dogs Obese Due to Overfeeding-ACVIM 2006-Page 78, Abstract #224
  13. Petshealth.com-Feline Diabetes
  14. Transient Canine Diabetes Mellitus-Journal of Small Animal Practice, 2003
  15. Intervet-Caninsulin-Page 3
  16. Veterinary Partner-Steroid Use
  17. Veterinary Information Network-Canine Diabetes

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